تاریخِ جهان از ماموت تا فیسبوک 33
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Muslims in Spain
Tariq ibn Ziyad, a Berber from North Africa, came ashore at Gibraltar at the head of a large Muslim army. Within a year he had overrun all of Spain, except for the small kingdom of Asturias in the northwest.
The name of Gibraltar comes from the Arabic Jebel al-Tariq, meaning "the hill of Tariq".
Battle of Tours
A Muslim army from Spain advanced as far as Tours in central France before being beaten by the Franks, led by Charles Martel. Though not a king himself, Charles Martel founded the Carolingian dynasty of Frankish kings.
Tiwanaku, a city on the altiplano (high plains of present-day Bolivia, was at its height. The Tiwanaku people built stone monuments and terraced the mountain slopes for farming.
Abu al-Abbas, head of a clan descended from Muhammad's uncle, overthrew the Umayyad caliphs, rulers of Islam since 661. Only one member of the Umayyad dynasty, Abd ar-Rahman, escaped he fled to Spain and established an emirate at Cordoba. The new Abbasid caliph defeated a Chinese army at the Battle of Talas River near Samarkand in 751.
Haroun al-Rashid became the fifth Abbasid caliph (head of state). He made the Abbasid capital of Baghdad a centre learning and encouraged scholars to translate ancient Greek and Roman texts into Arabic. Some stories in the Thousand and One Nights relate to him.
Raiders from the sea
Vikings, warriors from Scandinavia, attacked and looted Lindisfarne monastery in northeast England. The first recorded Viking raid, it came without warning and caused widespread horror and alarm.
Banished from court in 790, when her son Constantine Vi was proclaimed sole ruler, Empress Irene returned in 792 to resume her position as co-ruler of the Byzantine Empire In 797, along with the Bishops and courtiers she had her son blinded and declared herself Empress.
Muhammad fled from the town of Mecca to Medina in what is now Saudi Arabia, marking the start of the Muslim era.
On Muhammad's death, his father-in-law Abu Bakr became caliph (leader of Islam), the first of the four "rightly guided" caliphs.
The Arabs conquered Jerusalem. In the next 60 years, their armies overran Syria, Palestine, Persia, Egypt, and North Africa.
Ali, the fourth caliph, was assassinated. Mu'awiya, first of the Umayyad Dynasty, became caliph.
A Muslim army from North Africa, led by Tariq ibn Ziyad, invaded Spain and overthrew the Visigothic kingdom.
The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad caliphate Their first caliph, Abu-al-Abbas, moved the capital from Damascus to Baghdad (in present-day Iraq).
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