تاریخ جهان از ماموت تا فیسبوک(56)
جامعه سطلی پر از کوسه نیست، دریاییست پر از ماهی
- مانیفست حزب کمونیست
- تب طلا در کالیفرنیا
- قیام تایپینگها
- خوزه مارتی پیامبر استقلال و مبشر انقلاب کوبا
- جنگ کِریمه
- بانوی چراغبهدست؛ فلورانس ناینتینگل
- عهدنامهٔ کاناگاوا
- تأسیس حزب جمهوری خواه آمریکا
- درگذشت ویکتورهوگو
- جنگهای انگلستان و ایران
- تولد برنارد شاو
- قیام سپاهیان هندی علیه استعمار بریتانیا
- مرگ رابرت اوون
- نخستین چاه نفت دنیا
- انتخاب طبیعی یکی از بنیانهای زیستشناسی مدرن، و -
- اعدام جان براون، اندیشمند آمریکایی
Germ theory of disease
The germ theory of disease states that some diseases are caused by microorganisms. These small organisms, too small to see without magnification, invade humans, animals, and other living hosts. Their growth and reproduction within their hosts can cause a disease.
Rabindranath Tagore, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States fought from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states known as the Confederate States of America...
The Wolf and the Seven Young Goats
The Brothers Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German authors who together specialized in collecting and publishing folklore during the 19th century.
"The Wolf and the Seven Young Goats" is a fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm. This story tells of a wolf that wants to eat little goats when their mother leaves the house. Their mother tells them not to open the door to anyone but the wolf tries to trick them several times. Eventually he succeeds and eats six of the goats. Later, the mother finds the wolf and opens up his belly and frees her daughters. The wolf falls in the river and drowns.
The International Workingmen's Association
The International Workingmen's Association, often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. It was founded in 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in London.
The Geneva Conventions
The Geneva Conventions are a set of four treaties of international law. They were formulated in Geneva, Switzerland. All of the four treaties are about humanitarian issues. Some parts of the four Geneva Conventions say that all countries who signed must create national laws to make violations of the Geneva Conventions a crime.
The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the Great War in Paraguay, was a South American war fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay.
The assassination of Abraham Lincoln
The assassination of Abraham Lincoln was one of the last events in the American Civil War, and happened on Good Friday, April 14, 1865. President Lincoln was shot while watching the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C.. He died early the next morning.
French intervention in Mexico
The French Intervention in Mexico started in December 1861. First, Spain arrived with their delegation on December 1861, little later the French and the British. Mexico City was officially conquered by the French on June 10, 1863.
In 1867,Maximilian, “emperor” of Mexico, was executed.
The Austro-Prussian War was a war fought in 1866 between the German Confederation ("Deutscher Bund") under the leadership of the Austrian Empire ("Kaisertum Österreich") and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the other, that resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states. In the Italian unification process, this is called the Third Independence War.
Canadian Confederation was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, were federally united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
Treaty with Russia for the Purchase of Alaska
On March 30, 1867, the United States reached an agreement to purchase Alaska from Russia for a price of $7.2 million. The Treaty with Russia was negotiated and signed by Secretary of State William Seward and Russian Minister to the United States Edouard de Stoeckl.
Capital: Critique of Political Economy (1867), by Karl Marx is a foundational theoretical text in communist philosophy, economics and politics. Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production, in contrast to classical political economists such as Adam Smith, David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill.
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The Compromise re-established partially the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hungary, separate from, and no longer subject to the Austrian Empire. Under the Compromise, the lands of the House of Habsburg were reorganized as a real union between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary.
Karl Landsteiner was born in Vienna on June 14, 1868. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1930 for Physiology or Medicine for detecting the major blood groups and creating the ABO system of blood typing that revolutionized the process of blood transfusion and medical practice related to it.
The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. After 10 years of construction, it was officially opened on November 17, 1869.
War and Peace(Voyna i mir)
Epic historical novel by Leo Tolstoy, originally published as Voyna i mir(Война и мир) in 1865-69. This panoramic study of early 19th-century Russian society, noted for its mastery of realistic detail and variety of psychological analysis, is generally regarded as one of the world's greatest novels.
The periodic table
The periodic table of the chemical elements is a list of known atoms. In the table, the elements are placed in the order of their atomic numbers starting with the lowest number. The atomic number of an element is the same as the number of protons in that particular atom. In the periodic table the elements are arranged into periods and groups. The Periodic Table was invented and arranged by the Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1834-1907).
Yek kalameh(One Word Treatise)
This book is one of the earliest and most influential treatises on the relationship between western style law and Islam. The author (Mirza Yousuf Khan Mostashar al-Dowleh) regards codified law as the key to the regeneration and progress of Iran. One Word, or Yak Kelema was one of the first treatises to demonstrate that Islam is compatible with the introduction of modern western forms of government, and specifically that the sharia can be incorporated in a codified law comparable to that found in other European countries. The author argues the principles underlying constitutional government can be found in Islamic sources.
Paris Commune (la commune de paris)
In 1870 the Prussians had invaded France, and in a series of successful battles they moved rapidly towards Paris.
This 'surrender' was widely disapproved of by the working classes, and many of these workers formed part of the armed National Guard in the City.The Paris Commune took place from March 26 to May 28, 1871.
The Commune inspired both Karl Marz and Friedrich Engels, who saw in the Paris Commune a pattern of success that could be followed elsewhere.
Not surprisingly, Thiers was rapidly organising a force to retake Paris from the Commune. After just a week of existence the commune was under attack. and very quickly there were battles between the Commune members and the invading National Guard.
During April and May, the National Guard and the commune were pushed back into the city, and the city wall was breached on May 21 1871. After this the army made more rapid, and brutal, progress. Numerous National Guard members were executed immediately. By May 28 the fighting on the barricades was over and the National Guard had been defeated. There was now an enormous wave of massacres against those guilty of 'political crimes' - thousands of people identified as supporters of the Paris Commune were shot, and many more were exported from France...
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