تاریخ جهان از ماموت تا فیسبوک(57)
«مسأله تاریخ، تاریخِ مسألههاست»
در بخش پیش در بررسی مهمترین وقایع قرن نوزدهم میلادی(۱۸۷۱-۱۸۶۰)، از جمله به موارد زیر اشاره نمودم:
- نظریه میکروبی بیماریها
- تولد رابیندرانات تاگور
- جنگ داخلی آمریکا
- برادران گریم و قصه بُزبُز قندی
- بینالملل اول(انترناسیونال اول)
- کنوانسیون ژنِو
- جنگ پاراگوئه
- ترور آبراهام لینکلن
- خروج فرانسه از مکزیک
- اعدام ماکسیمیلین
- جنگ اتریش و پروس
- استقلال کانادا از بریتانیا
- خرید آلاسکا توسط آمریکا
- کتاب کاپیتال مارکس
- امپراتوری اتریش-مجارستان
- کارل لندشتاینر، کاشف گروههای خونی
- کانال سوئز
- رُمان جنگ و صلح تولستوی
- جدول مندلیف
- رساله یک کلمه، و -
- کمون پاریس شروع تاریخ سیاسی طبقه کارگر
- دریاچه تانگانیکا در مرکز آفریقا و قدیمیترین دریاچه جهان است.
- آبشار ویکتوریا در جنوب قاره آفریقا، بر روی خط مرزی زامبیا و زیمبابوه قرار گرفتهاست. دیوید لیوینگستن، آن را به افتخار ملکه ویکتوریا، آبشار ویکتوریا نامید. این آبشار در زبان بومیان منطقه «موسی اوآ تونیا» خوانده میشود که به معنی «مه خروشان» است.
- زامبزی Zambezi بزرگترین رودخانهای است که از آفریقا به اقیانوس هند میریزد.
- دریاچه مالاوی یکی از دریاچههای بزرگ آفریقا است.
چرا نگفتی، او جوان افتاد؟ و این همان چیزی بود که باعث شد تا جمله معروف دهخدا، بلافاصله در خواب، در ذهنش نقش ببندد.
ای مرغ سحر چو این شب تار
بگذشت ز سر سیاهکاری
وز نفخه روحبخش اسحار
رفت از سر خفتگان خماری
بگشود گره ز زلف زرتار
محبوبه نیلگون عماری
یزدان به کمال شد نمودار
واهریمن زشتخو حصاری
یاد آر، ز شمع مرده یاد آر
The Great Persian Famine, 1870-71
In 1870 - 71, an unfortunate confluence of events caused horrifying famine to break out in Persia (Iran), which left an estimated 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 Persians dead. Although nature's caprices and colonial agricultural policies played some role in the devastation, it was mostly human greed that caused all of this suffering and death. Exactly what or who caused the Great Persian Famine of 1870 - 71
As conditions worsened, people began to eat cats, dogs, rats, or grass in a desperate quest for nourishment. In the holy city of Qom, gangs lured people out of the city by promising to sell them food, then killed and ate them instead. Some people reportedly even cannibalized their own children. To add to the misery, a cholera epidemic swept through the already weakened population. Some towns lost up to two-thirds of their inhabitants, who had either died or fled.
Otto von Bismarck
Bismarck was an aristocrat and statesman of the 19th century in Europe. As Prime Minister of Prussia from 1862 to 1890, he was mainly responsible for unifying the many independent German countries and founding the German Empire in 1871. He became the first chancellor of the new Empire.
Once the empire was established, he actively and skillfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs, succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades. But in domestic policies his patrimony was less benign, for he failed to rise above the authoritarian proclivities of the landed squirearchy to which he was born.
Italian unification (Risorgimento)
Italian unification, meaning the Resurgence or revival, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. Despite a lack of consensus on the exact dates for the beginning and end of this period, many historians and scholars agree that the process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and the end of Napoleonic rule, and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.
David Livingstone was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and an explorer in Africa, one of the most popular national heroes of late–19th-century in Victorian Britain.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations ...
"Feuerbach is the only one who has a serious, critical attitude to the Hegelian dialectic and who has made genuine discoveries in this field. He is in fact the true conqueror of the old philosophy". Marx, 1844
Mary Celeste was an American cargo ship that was found adrift in the North Atlantic in December 1872 in perfect condition but abandoned. The fate of the crew and the reason for the abandonment of the ship remain a mystery.
Bertrand Russell, was one of the world's best-known intellectuals. He was a philosopher, logician, and mathematician. He was born in Wales, but spent most of his life in England. He worked mostly in the 20th century. Russell tried to make philosophy popular. He gave his opinion on many topics. He wrote the essay, "On Denoting", which has been described as one of the most influential essays in philosophy in the 20th Century. In 1950, Russell was made a Nobel Laureate in Literature "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought". He died of influenza.
Gold Coast (Gulf of Guinea)
The Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa that became the independent nation of Ghana in 1957. The first Europeans to arrive at the coast were the Portuguese in 1471 In 1482, the Portuguese built the Castle of Elmina, the first European settlement on the Gold Coast. From here they traded slaves, gold, knives, beads, mirrors, rum and guns. News of the successful trading spread quickly, and eventually British, Dutch, Danish, Prussian and Swedish traders arrived as well. The European traders built several forts along the coastline. The slave trade was the principal exchange for many years.
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author best known for writing children's stories including "The Little Mermaid" and "The Ugly Duckling."
He was a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, Andersen is best remembered for his fairy tales. Andersen's popularity is not limited to children; his stories, called eventyr in Danish, express themes that transcend age and nationality.
Charles Lyell - Uniformitarianism
Charles Lyell, was a British geologist. He was the foremost geologist of his day, and an influence on the young Charles Darwin. Lyell's Principles of Geology was his most famous, most influential, and most important book. The book was a development of the ideas of James Hutton, but with many additions, improvements and examples. The book established Lyell's credentials as an important geological theorist. It was a work of synthesis, backed by his own personal observations on his travels.
The central argument in Principles was that the present is the key to the past.
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was one of the primary inventors of the telephone, did important work in communication for the deaf and held more than 18 patents. He worked with Thomas Watson on the design and patent of the first practical telephone. Graham Bell died on August 2, 1922, in Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Alexander Graham Bell recorded his voice on a wax-covered cardboard disc on April 15, 1885, and gave it an audio signature: "Hear my voice - Alexander Graham Bell."
Mexican president Porfirio Díaz is best known for establishing a strong centralized state during his term. Considered a dictator by some, Díaz is a controversial figure in Mexican history. Historians claim that he suppressed the media and controlled the court system, managing to keep his people in a constant state of uncertainty while controlling all aspects of the government from his seat.
Battle Of Little Big Horn
The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to Lakota, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which occurred June 25–26, 1876, was the most prominent action of the Great Sioux War of 1876.
Jack London was an American novelist, journalist, and social activist. Some of his most famous works include The Call of the Wild and White Fang, as well as the short stories "To Build a Fire", "An Odyssey of the North", and "Love of Life".
Jack London was part of the radical literary group, and a passionate advocate of unionization, socialism, and the rights of workers. He wrote several powerful works dealing with these topics, such as his dystopian novel The Iron Heel, his non-fiction exposé The People of the Abyss, and The War of the Classes.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.He served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's creation on 14 August 1947, and then as Pakistan's first Governor-General until his death. In 1920, the Indian National Congress launched a movement of non-cooperation to boycott all aspects of British rule. Jinnah opposed this policy and resigned from the congress. After provincial elections in 1937, the congress refused to form coalition administrations with the Muslim League in mixed areas. Relations between Hindus and Muslims began to deteriorate. In 1940, at a Muslim League session in Lahore, the first official demand was made for the partition of India and the creation of a Muslim state of Pakistan. His insistence on this issue through negotiations with the British government resulted in the partition of India and the formation of the state of Pakistan on 14 August 1947. This occurred against a backdrop of widespread violence between Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs, and a vast movement of populations between the new states of Pakistan and India in which hundreds of thousands died.
Congo - Kinshasa
Kinshasa (Leopoldville) is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is located on the Congo River.The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a country located in Central Africa. From 1971 to 1997 it was named Zaire.
The Bayreuth Festival is a music festival held annually in Bayreuth, Germany, at which performances of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner are presented.
The phonograph, also called the record player or gramophone, is an electronic device that plays recorded sound. It was the most common device for playing recorded music from the 1870s through the 1980s. It was invented by Thomas Edison.
Mirza Fatali Akhundov
Mirza Fatali Akhundzade also known as Akhundov, was a celebrated ethnic Azerbaijani author, playwright, philosopher, and founder of modern literary criticism,"who acquired fame primarily as the writer of European-inspired plays in the Azeri Turkic language". Akhundzade singlehandedly opened a new stage of development of Azerbaijani literature and is also considered one of the founders of modern Iranian literature.
Second Anglo–Afghan War
The Second Anglo–Afghan War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880,...
This was the second time British India invaded Afghanistan. The war ended after the British emerged victorious against the Afghan rebels...
Treaty of San Stefano
The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on 3 March 1878, by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadoullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. The treaty ended the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78.
The treaty provided for the creation of an autonomous Principality of Bulgaria following almost 500 years of Ottoman domination. The day the treaty was signed is celebrated as Liberation Day in Bulgaria.
The Anglo-Zulu War was a war fought from 1873 to 1879 between the Zulu people and the British Empire. There was no declaration of war. The war was fought in South Africa, mostly. The Zulu were victorious at first, and won the Battle of Isandlwana. Later their luck turned, and the British Empire won the Battle of Ulundi. The Zulu lost the war, and the Zulu Kingdom ceased to exist as an independent state. Today, the area is part of South Africa, and is called KwaZulu-Natal.
War of the Pacific
The War of the Pacific, took place from 1879 to 1883, with Bolivia and Peru on one side and Chile on the other. The war ended with a Chilean victory, which gained a significant amount of land from Peru and Bolivia.
Ali Akbar Dehkhoda
Ali Akbar Dehkhoda was born in Tehran 1879. His father, Khan Baba Khan Ghazvini, died when his son was only nine years old. In December 1899, Dehkhoda enrolled in the School of Political Science. After completing his studies, Dehkhoda was retained as a secretary by the Ghajar dignitary and ambassador to Balkan countries, and studied for the next two years, primarily inVienna, Austria.In these years he completed his French language. Dehkhoda”s returned to Iran, in 1905, coincided with the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and soon became an important participant in that movement. His literary and commentary work began with his collaboration withSur-Esrafil newspaperfounded by Mirza Jahangir Khan Shirazi, known as Sur-Esrafil, and Qasem Khan Tabrizi. Dehkhoda wrote a satirical political column titledCharand-o-Parandunder the nickname Dakho which became quite popular and controversial. Sur Esrafil was a popular newspaper among the people.
With the bombardment of the Iranian Parliament by Mohammad Ali Shah, Dehkhoda was arrested and forced into exile since was one of the members of liberation movement while his friend and collaborator, Sur Esrafil was executed by the order of the Shah.
During World War I, Dehkhoda took sanctuary among the Bakhtiaris in the Chahar Mahal area and upon the conclusion of the war returned toTehran. From this time, Dehkhoda withdrew from public and political life and immersed himself in literary and scholarly works. It was during this period that he undertook the monumental task of writing his Persian Encyclopedia, as well as producing other literary and scholarly works on Persian literature and language. Dehkhoda’s Persian Encyclopedia, is the conclusion of his attempt during forty years.
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