تاریخ جهان از ماموت تا فیسبوک(58)
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در بخش پیش در بررسی مهمترین وقایع قرن نوزدهم میلادی(۱۸۷۱-۱۸۸۰)، ازجمله به موارد زیر اشاره نمودم:
- قحطی بزرگ در ایران
- پیروزی اتو فون بیسمارک
- مرگ فویرباخ
- ماجرای کشتی تجاری موسوم به ماری سلست
- برتراند راسل؛ مدافع سرسخت تجربه گرایی و پیشگام تحلیل منطقی
- مرگ هانس کریستین آندرسن
- اختراع تلفن
- نبرد لیتل بیگهورن
- فراز و فرود جک لندن
- محمدعلی جناح و کشور پاکستان
- داستان گرامافون
- مرگ فتحعلی آخوندزاده
- جنگ دوم انگلیس و افغانستان
- پیمان سن استفانو(بین روسیه و عثمانی)
- نبرد انگلیسیها و زولوها، و -
- تولد علی اکبر دهخدا
عشق به جایی مرا رساند که آنجا
گردش گردون نبود و تابش کوکب
هم دل خسرو شکست و هم سر فرهاد
عشوهٔ شیرین تندخوی شکر لب...
افکنده به رخسار چومه زلف سیاهی
الهی تو گواهی خدایا تو پناهی (...)
این نیست مگر آینه لطف الهی
الهی تو گواهی خدایاتو پناهی
صدبار گداییش به از منصب شاهی
الهی تو گواهی خدایا تو پناهی
پیام دوشم از پیر میفروش آمد
بنوش باده که یک ملتی به هوش آمد
هزار پرده ز ایران درید استبداد
هزار شکر که مشروطه پرده پوش آمد
ز خاک پاک شهیدان راه آزادی
ببین که خون سیاوش چسان به جوش آمد
صدای نالهی عارف به گوش هر که رسید
چو دف به سر زد و چون چنگ در خروش آمد
Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Kāshānī
Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Kāshānī was a Persian astronomer and mathematician, who left his native city Kashan for Samarkand to join Ulugh Beg's scientific circle. His famous letter to his father, written in Persian, sent from Samarkand to Kashan, was widely known.
Al-Kāshī himself gives a vivid record of Samarkand scientific life in an undated letter to his father, which was written while the observatory was being built...
Tsar Alexander II's assassination
Alexander II was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881,was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland. Alexander's most significant reform as emperor was emancipation of Russia's serfs in 1861, for which he is known as Alexander the Liberator. On 13 March 1881, Alexander fell victim to an assassination plot in Saint Petersburg.
Louis Auguste Blanqui
Louis Auguste Blanqui was a French socialist and political activist, notable for his revolutionary theory of Blanquism. Blanqui's uncompromising radicalism, and his determination to enforce it by violence, brought him into conflict with every French government during his lifetime, and as a consequence, he spent half of his life in prison. Following a speech at a political meeting in Paris, Blanqui had a stroke. He died on 1 January 1881 and was interred in the Père Lachaise Cemetery.
Treaty of Akhal
The Treaty of Akhal was a treaty signed by Iran and Imperial Russia on 21 September 1881. The treaty marked Persia's official recognition of Khwarazm's annexation by the Russian Empire. By virtue of this treaty, Persia would henceforth cease any claim to all parts of Turkestan and Transoxiana, setting the Atrek River as the new boundary. Hence Merv, Sarakhs, Eshgh Abad, and the surrounding areas were transferred to Russian control under the command of General Alexander Komarov in 1884.
Rais Ali Delvari (Freedom fighter)
Rais Ali Delvari was an independence fighter and anti-British colonialism activist now remembered as the national hero of Iran, who organized popular resistance against the British troops, which had invaded Iran in 1915. Subsequent to British occupation of Bushehr, Rais Ali courageously resisted the aggressors and imposed heavy defeats on them. The noble Rais Ali Delvari eventually was attacked from behind by a traitor and martyred on September 2, 1915, when he was 33.
History of Egypt under the British
The history of Egypt under the British lasts from 1882, when it was occupied by British forces during the Anglo-Egyptian War,(until 1956)
The history of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali Pasha dynasty spanned the later period of Ottoman Egypt, the Khedivate of Egypt under British patronage, and the nominally independent Sultanate of Egypt and Kingdom of Egypt, ending with the Revolution of 1952 and the formation of the Republic of Egypt.
Abolqassem Aref Qazvini was an Iranian poet, lyricist, and musician. He composed many poems about Iran and was called a national poet. Along with his powerful poetry, he also wrote lyrics for numerous songs and played music. He was a revolutionary during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and made many political and pro-revolutionary songs.
Aref Qazvini was born in Qazvin in 1882, the son of Molla Hadi Vakil. From age thirteen he studied Persian vocal music with Haji Sadeq Kharrazi. After singing at religious ceremonies led by his father for a few years, he went to Tehran, where he was invited to perform at the court of Mozafareddin-Shah. During the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, he joined the revolutionist party and composed many political anti-dictatorship songs, becoming the first Persian songwriter to do so.
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