تاریخ جهان از ماموت تا فیسبوک(60)صدای مردم، صدای خداست
Vox Populi, Vox Dei
من دادهها و اطلاعات مربوط به روزگار سپریشده را یافته؛ جمعآوری و سازمان دادهام و گرچه در وقایعنگاری صرف نماندهام اما از تحلیل و تفسیر روابط بین این وقایع و اینکه چگونه و چرا رُخ دادهاند، گذشتهام. از جمله به این خاطر که بدان اشراف کافی ندارم.
- مارکس نقش خودش را به همه جهان زد
- مارکس و تز های فویرباخ
- جهان ما را به لحاظ نظری؛ امثال مارکس ساختهاند
- مارکس؛ کافر به ظلم بود و مؤمن به آزادی
- سُنّت مارکسی؛ لزوماً با مارکسیسم، یکی نیست
- عشق جستجوی نیمۀ گمشده آدمی است. و،
- سخنان انگلس بر سر مزار مارکس
Bruno Bauer was a German philosopher and historian. As a student of Hegel, Bauer was a radical Rationalist in philosophy, politics and Biblical criticism.
Arthur de Gobineau
Arthur de Gobineau was a French aristocrat who was best known by his contemporaries as a novelist, diplomat and travel writer. Gobineau, wrote a book, An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races in which he claimed that aristocrats were superior to commoners and that they possessed more Aryan genetic traits because of less inbreeding with inferior races (Alpines and Mediterraneans).
Gobineau served as a diplomat for the Second French Empire. Initially he was posted to Persia, before working in Brazil and other countries. One of his works is "The World of the Persians".
John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes, was an English economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. He built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and is widely considered to be one of the most influential economists of the 20th century and the founder of modern macroeconomics. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics and its various offshoots. Following the outbreak of World War II, the leading Western economies adopted Keynes's policy recommendations, and in the two decades following Keynes's death in 1946, almost all capitalist governments had done so.
Ivan Turgenev was a Russian novelist, short story writer, and playwright. His first major publication, a short story collection entitled A Sportsman's Sketches (1852), was a milestone of Russian Realism, and his novel Fathers and Sons (1862) is regarded as one of the major works of 19th-century fiction.
Krakatoa, is a volcanic island situated in the Indonesian province of Lampung. The name is also used for the surrounding island group comprising the remnants of a much larger island of three volcanic peaks which was obliterated in a cataclysmic 1883 eruption, unleashing huge tsunamis (killing more than 36,000 people) and destroying over two-thirds of the island. The explosion is considered to be the loudest sound ever heard in modern history, with reports of it being heard up to 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from its point of origin.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference, regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa.
German genocide in Namibia
Namibia is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean. In the late 19th century during European colonization, the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate in 1884. Some historians have speculated that the German genocide in Namibia was a model used by Nazis in the Holocaust. The memory of genocide remains relevant to ethnic identity in independent Namibia and to relations with Germany.
The Maxim gun was a weapon invented by British inventor Hiram Stevens Maxim in 1883: it was the first recoil-operated machine gun.
Gregor Johann Mendel was a German-speaking Moravian-Silesian scientist and Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the modern science of genetics.
Liberty Enlightening the World
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World)
is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.
Haymarket massacre was the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago. It began as a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day and in reaction to the killing of several workers the previous day by the police. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted to disperse the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and at least four civilians; scores of others were wounded. 1 May was chosen to be International Workers' Day in order to commemorate the Haymarket affair in Chicago.
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Gustav Ludwig Hertz, German physicist who, with James Franck, received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1925 for the Franck-Hertz experiment, which confirmed the quantum theory that energy can be absorbed by an atom only in definite amounts and provided an important confirmation of the Bohr atomic model.
Wounded Knee Massacre
The Sioux (su) are groups of Native American tribes.
The massacre at Wounded Knee Creek was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota and the United States. The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota.
Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created approximately 2100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings, most of them in the last two years of his life. They include landscapes, still lifes, portraits and self-portraits, and are characterised by bold, symbolic colours, and dramatic, impulsive and highly expressive brushwork that contributed to the foundations of modern art. He sold only one painting during his lifetime and became famous after his suicide, which followed years of poverty and mental illness.
Antonio Gramsci was an Italian neo-Marxist theorist and politician. He wrote on political theory, sociology and linguistics. He was a founding member and one-time leader of the Communist Party of Italy and was imprisoned by Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime. He wrote more than 30 notebooks and 3,000 pages of history and analysis during his imprisonment. His Prison Notebooks are considered a highly original contribution to 20th century political theory.
Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. In 1893, New Zealand, granted adult women the right to vote.
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, primarily over control of Korea.
The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal in France. The affair is often seen as a modern and universal symbol of injustice, and remains one of the most striking examples of a complex miscarriage of justice, where a major role was played by the press and public opinion. The scandal began in December 1894, with the treason conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young French artillery officer of Alsatian and Jewish descent. Sentenced to life imprisonment for allegedly communicating French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, Dreyfus was imprisoned on Devil's Island in French Guiana, where he spent nearly five years.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
Louis Pasteur was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases, and his discoveries have saved countless lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.
Auguste and Louis Lumière
The Lumière (pronounced were the first filmmakers in history. They patented the cinematograph, which in contrast to Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.
Augusto Sandino, was a Nicaraguan revolutionary and leader of a rebellion against the U.S. military occupation of Nicaragua. He was referred to as a "terorist" by the United States government. He became a symbol of resistance to United States' domination. Sandino is revered in Nicaragua, and in 2010 was unanimously named a "national hero" by the nation's congress.
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