تاریخ جهان از ماموت تا فیسبوک(50)
انقلاب کبیر فرانسه چارچوب سیاسى رژیم کهن را درهم شکست
- عصر یخبندان کوچک
- بنجامین فرانکلین و قدرت برق
- جان آدامز و نامهاش به توماس جفرسون
- زلزله مهیب سال ۱۷۵۵ در لیسبون
- مرگ منتسکیو
- بلندترین مجسمهی چوبی بوداسَف(بیداروجود)
- جنگ هفت ساله قدرتهای بزرگ بین سالهای ۱۷۵۶ تا ۱۷۶۳
- نبرد پلاسی و سیاه چاله کلکته
- ادموند هالی و ستارههای دنبالهدار
- جنگ کِبِک و نوول فرانس
- قتل نادرشاه افشار و رویکارآمدن کریمخان زند
- ژان ژاک روسو و کتاب قرارداد اجتماعی
- انقلاب آمریکا
- هلند نو؛ یا استرالیا، و –
- انقلاب صنعتی
- با انقلاب فرانسه حق شورش که در جهانیکردن اندیشه حقوق بشر نقش مهمی داشت؛ تصویب شد
- حق مقاومت در برابر ستم که از جمله حقوق طبیعی و غیر قابل نفی بشر است، بر سر زبانها افتاد
- فئوالیته زمین خورد و کم کم جامعه نوین بورژوایی یا جامعه طبقات متوسط شکل گرفت
- پاریس مرکز افکار آزادیخواهانه در اروپا شد
- ملت برای اولینبار معنای سیاسی پیدا کرد و به مقوله سیاسی تبدیل گشت
- سازمان کهن اروپا در هم ریخت و رونق ناسیونالیسم تسریع شد
- از آزادیهای منفی هم دفاع شد که به معنی فقدان هر گونه اجبار و موانع خارجی بر سر ارادهٔ شهروندان است
- چارچوب سیاسى رژیم کهن درهم شکست و امتیازات محلى و تبعیضات ایالتى کم و کمتر شد
- رومانتیسم بر مؤلفههایی چون هنر، شور، هیجان، تخیل، مضامین معنوی، مناسک و نمادها بیشتر تکیه کرد و جانی تازه گرفت.
Pugachev was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II. Pugachev was captured soon after and executed in Moscow in 1775. It was the largest peasant revolt in Russia's history.
Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith was a Scottish moral philosopher, pioneer of political economy, and a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. Adam Smith is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Adam Smith is cited as the father of modern economics and is still among the most influential thinkers in the field of economics today.
Voltaire and Lisbon earthquake
The Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne (Poem on the Lisbon Disaster) is a poem in French composed by Voltaire as a response to the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. It is widely regarded as an introduction to Voltaire's later acclaimed work Candide and his view on the problem of evil.
Romanticism / Sturm und Drang
Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Sturm und Drang, (Storm and Stress), German literary movement of the late 18th century that exalted nature, feeling, and human individualism and sought to overthrow the Enlightenment cult of Rationalism. Goethe and Schiller began their careers as prominent members of the movement.
The French Revolution
In 1788, France was ruled by a king, queen, aristocracy, and clergy; who lived in luxury, while many of their subjects starved. Just five years later, the king and queen were dead, along with thousands of others, and the country was controlled by radical revolutionaries who abolished the monarchy and nobility, and attacked Christianity Centuries of tradition and privilege were swept away, but the check cleared the way for a new era of political freedom and democracy. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. Almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor.
Tennis Court Oath
When Louis XVi became king in 1774, France was bankrupt. His attempts at reform were blocked, and by 1789 bread shortages were causing riots. In a bid to raise taxes, Louis called a meeting of the Estates General parliament. It was the first met since 1614. But the representatives of the common people, the Third Estate, declared that they alone had the right to be the "National Assembly". Meeting in an indoor tennis court in June, they swore an oath to create a new constitution for France.
The Storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. The prison contained just seven inmates at the time of its storming but was a symbol of the abuse of the monarchy: its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.
A driven and fearless soldier, Napoleon Bonaparte came to power at the end of the French Revolution. His military genius brought him many victories and resulted in much of Europe coming under French control. He also introduced a system of law, the Code Napoleon, that gave poor people in France new rights. However his ambition was his undoing and he ended his life in exile.
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