تاریخ جهان از ماموت تا فیسبوک(52)
فلسفه کانت؛ نظریه آلمانی انقلاب فرانسه است
- تملک سریع مستعمرات جدید در سطح جهان توسط اروپا کلید خورد و آفریقا به معنی واقعی کلمه غارت شد،
- فاتحه امپراتوریهای عثمانی؛ اسپانیا، پرتغال، مغول و روم مقدس خوانده شد،
- روسیه و چین را آشوبهای اجتماعی وسیع دربرگرفت،
- بر سر کنترل اروپا و جهان؛ کشمکشهایی بین فرانسه، و انگلیس و متحدانشان آغاز شد که به جنگهای ناپلئونی شهره است،
- در پایان این جنگها؛ ناپلئون در واترلو شکست خورد. (سال ۱۸۱۵) (بعداً به این واقعه برمیگردیم)
- پس از جنگهای ناپلئونی؛ بریتانیا در حالیکه یک چهارم از جمعیت کل جهان را در اختیار داشت تبدیل به بزرگترین ابرقدرت قرن شد،
- با شورش بردگان در هائیتی(یکی از مستعمرههای فرانسه)، و اتفاقات بعدی، از میزان بردهداری در جهان (به شکل کلاسیک آن) کاسته شد،
- الکتریسیته و فولاد و نفت، آلمان و ژاپن و ایالات متحده را زیر و زبَر کرد
- انقلاب صنعتی در بسیاری از کشورهای اروپایی به ویژه آلمان شتاب گرفت و تا پایان این سده با ساخت کارخانجات و راهآهن در همه جای اروپا رو به گسترش نهاد،
- نظریهٔ تکامل داروین و نظرات اگوست کنت فیلسوف فرانسوی که تا حدودی از انقلاب صنعتی تأثیر گرفته بودند، باعث قدرتگیری نوعی عقلگرایی (پوزیتیویسم) شد،
- پوزیتیویسم؛ که شاخصهٔ ادبی آن طبیعتگرایی(ناتورالیسم) است و دادههای برگرفته شده از «تجربه حسّی» و تلقی منطقی و ریاضی از آن، بعنوان تنها منبع معرفتهای معتبر، برجسته شد،
- نقد عقل محض Kritik der reinen Vernunft (این کتاب به بررسی و تقسیمبندی مقولات شناخت و نیز بررسیِ محسوسات، ادراک و عقل محض پرداختهاست)
- نقد عقل عملی Kritik der praktischen Vernunft (این کتاب به مبانی فلسفه اخلاق میپردازد)
- نقد داوری Kritik der Urteilskraft(این کتاب، نقش پیونددهندهٔ دو اثر دیگر، یعنی نقد عقلِ محض و نقدِ عقلِ عملی را برعهده دارد و گذار از فلسفهٔ نظری به فلسفهٔ اخلاق را تشریح میکند)
The Irish Rebellion of 1798, and the rebels' alliance with Great Britain's longtime enemy the French, led to a push to bring Ireland formally into the British Union.
By the Acts of Union 1800, voted for by both Irish and British Parliaments, the Kingdom of Ireland merged on 1 January 1801 with the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Indian (Native American) Removal
The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out France's territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U.S.'s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain, and Native Americans.
Kant was a German philosopher. He was born in Königsberg, Prussia, and also died there. Kant studied philosophy in the university there, and later became a professor of philosophy. He called his system "transcendental idealism".
The most known work of Kant is the book Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft) that Kant published in 1781. Kant called his way of thought "critique", not philosophy. Kant said that critique was a preparation for establishment of real philosophy. According to Kant, people should know what human reason can do and which limits it has.
Kant wrote two other books named Critique: Critique of the practical reason (1788) and Critique of the Judgement (1790).
Kant had a great influence on other thinkers. In the 19th century, German philosophers like Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Schopenhauer and writers like Herder, Schiller, and Goethe were influenced by Kant.
Schiller / Weimar Classicism
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with the already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. They frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he left as sketches. This relationship and these discussions led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism. They also worked together on Xenien, a collection of short satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents to their philosophical vision.
Treaties of Tilsit
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland.
The treaty ended war between Imperial Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that rendered the rest of continental Europe almost powerless. The two countries secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes. France pledged to aid Russia against Ottoman Turkey while Russia agreed to join the Continental System against the British Empire...
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon puts his brother on the throne of Spain
In 1807, Napoleon’s troops poured into Spain, supposedly just passing through. But Napoleon’s real intentions soon became clear: the alliance was a trick. The French were taking over. Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon’s brother, was the new king of Spain.
On May 2, 1808, hundreds of Spaniards rebelled. On May 3, these Spanish freedom fighters were rounded up and massacred by the French.
Their blood literally ran through the streets of Madrid. Third of May, 1808 in Madrid is acclaimed as one of the great paintings of all time, and has even been called the world’s first modern painting.
Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other off and remain at peace.
Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned emperor in 1804 at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris، thus ending the Republican. His reorganization of the territories he conquered، in Italy and parts of Germany، had a profound impact، including the ending of the Holy Roman Empire.
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon escaped to France and continued to be at war. The Battle of Waterloo، near Brussels، in 1815، was the last military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars، it was fought between Napoleon's army and coalition forces، led by the Duke of Wellington from Britain and General Blucher from Prussia. The outcome of this closely fought battle saw the end of 26 years of fighting between European powers and France.
Valentin Haüy was the founder, in 1784, of the first school for the blind, the Royal Institution for the Young Blind in Paris. In 1819, Louis Braille entered this school.
Louis Braille was a French educator and inventor of a system of reading and writing for use by the blind or visually impaired.
Louis Braille began developing a system of tactile code that could allow blind people to read and write quickly and efficiently. Braille constructed a new method built specifically for the needs of the blind. It went unused by most educators for many years after his death, but posterity has recognized braille as a revolutionary invention.
George Gordon Byron, commonly known simply as Lord Byron, was an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement. Among his best-known works are the lengthy narrative poems Don Juan and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, and the short lyric "She Walks in Beauty". He travelled widely across Europe, especially in Italy where he lived for seven years. Later in life, Byron joined the Greek War of Independence fighting the Ottoman Empire, for which many Greeks revere him as a national hero.
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution, was a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1832 against the Ottoman Empire.
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best-known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 16 string quartets, his great Mass the Missa solemnis and an opera, Fidelio.
He lived in Vienna until his death. By his late 20s his hearing began to deteriorate, and by the last decade of his life he was almost totally deaf. In 1811 he gave up conducting and performing in public but continued to compose; many of his most admired works came from the last 15 years of his life.
Simón Bolívar, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Panama and Colombia as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.
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